We measure damages resulting from violations of intellectual property, providing expert testimony and written analysis that is supported by rigorous economic models.

About Us

Concept2Company (C2C) Patents, an independent affiliate of Cornerstone Research, is a boutique economic and financial consulting firm spun out of Stanford University. C2C helps North America’s top law firms, Fortune 1000 corporations, and financial institutions address commercial intellectual property issues.

C2C Patents supports clients with analysis at the earliest stages of an IP dispute. We help to establish the economic value of features within complex technology products, guide lawyers in the discovery of that value, and provide expert testimony and written analysis during commercial IP litigation and regulatory proceedings.

Why C2C Patents?

For attorneys and their clients, finding qualified damages experts is often a random process of seeking referrals and figuring out whom they can trust.

Conceived at Stanford University by faculty members with experience in economics, patents, and finance, C2C Patents brings industry-specific expertise in producing financial models to measure damages in intellectual property and complex financial disputes. We are adept at explaining complex evaluations to non-experts. C2C Patents is an affiliate of Cornerstone Research, a leading economic consulting firm with offices in Boston, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Silicon Valley, and Washington.

What C2C Patents does

C2C Patents gets involved with clients much earlier than other economic consulting firms do. Often, a Case Management Order has been issued but no Discovery has occurred. We work with plaintiffs as well as defendants in intellectual property disputes. We help attorneys and corporate clients evaluate economic claims related to intellectual property.

  • Review patent and intellectual property at issue

  • Develop relevant valuation methodologies to guide pretrial discovery

  • Find substitute technologies available to engineers and help identify qualified technical experts

  • Produce economic models that measure damages resulting from alleged wrongful conduct

  • Provide sworn testimony and written analysis

After the attorneys and C2C Patents agree to move forward, C2C Patents assists attorneys with various phases of litigation, including the development and review of pretrial discovery and the creation of economic and financial models to analyze damages. We deliver high-quality, independent, and objective evaluations of the financial and economic impact resulting from alleged wrongful conduct. Our extensive real-world experience allows us to reach reliable conclusions on complex issues emanating from a broad array of causes of action. And we do all this in a cost-efficient manner.

We provide litigation support and expert testimony both in the courts and before the International Trade Commission (ITC).

The principals at C2C Patents have experience in building licensing programs, buying intellectual property, and valuing private venture capital-funded companies in the following technology areas:


  • Consumer software
  • Online advertising
  • Healthcare software
  • Enterprise applications
  • Databases
  • Social networking software
  • Financial services
  • Gaming software


  • 3G/4G handsets
  • Semiconductors
  • Automotive technologies
  • Consumer Electronics

Life Sciences

  • Medical devices and diagnostics
  • Healthcare services
  • Biotech tools and reagents

C2C Patents works with technical experts to establish the economic value of technology features within complex products and guides lawyers in the discovery of that value.

C2C Patents also assists clients with the valuation, transfer, and structuring of intellectual property portfolios in non-litigation business settings such as bankruptcy.

We measure all aspects of the financial and economic remedies available to intellectual property owners, including:

  • Reasonable royalty
    and apportionment

  • Price

  • Damages from
    lost profits

  • Unjust

For disputes involving complex financial issues, our litigation experience has focused on private companies and partnerships. Experience has included the measurements of damages related to:

  • Corporate Ownership
  • Joint Ventures
  • Business Valuation
  • Venture Capital
  • Private Equity Financing
  • Bankruptcy Matters

C2C Patents applies traditional damages methodologies to case-specific facts.

We provide written analysis and sworn testimony in intellectual property disputes involving misappropriation of trade secrets, patent infringement, bankruptcy, and complex financial issues involving private companies and partnerships.

We have advised clients on matters in U.S. state and federal courts; international courts; arbitration; and at the U.S. International Trade Commission.

A new model

  • We produce expert testimony and analysis that is accurate and defensible.

    Experts at C2C Patents apply standard economic models to value intellectual property using case-specific facts. We can support our testimony and our analysis with our deep, extensive experience in IP transactions.

  • We have purchased patent portfolios on behalf of large non-practicing entities such as Intellectual Ventures.

    Experts at C2C Patents have built operating licensing programs based on detailed models of damages in a variety of technology areas. We have purchased intellectual property from universities and licensed them to operating companies.

  • We know how to measure the value of venture capital-funded companies.

    Experts at C2C Patents have invested seed capital in new technology companies that have raised more than $280 million in follow-on venture capital since 1997. We are experienced at measuring the value of pre-revenue companies and evaluating technologies before product launch.

  • We are comfortable explaining complex intellectual property matters in simple terms.

    Experts at C2C Patents have taught survey courses at leading universities and published business case studies for non-technical audiences.

C2C Patents is committed to creating rigorous economic analysis of intellectual property assets and delivering credible, defensible testimony that is supported by compelling real-world experience.

Managing Partner

Micah Siegel, Ph.D.

Managing Director

B.S. Yale University (Phi Beta Kappa, Magna Cum Laude); Ph.D. California Institute of Technology; CPVA

Micah joined the Stanford University faculty in 2006 as a Consulting Professor. His research interests include the economics of patent and software licensing, private company valuation, and rigorous methods to establish the economic value of technology features. He provides expert testimony for economic issues that arise in intellectual property litigation as well as complex financial litigation involving private companies and partnerships.

Micah has been named as a testifying expert related to economic damages in seven cases and retained as a consulting expert in an additional eight cases. He has 17 years of experience as an academic and an industry practitioner measuring the economic value of technologies. He has advised clients on matters in U.S. state and federal courts; international courts; arbitration; and at the U.S. International Trade Commission. From 2010-2013, Micah worked as an industry practitioner with Intellectual Ventures, a large investment fund family (total capital > $5B) dedicated to patents (over 30,000 patents and applications) to establish core valuation methodologies and monetization practices for the deep portfolio of assets owned by IV. He developed patent valuation models, determined reasonable royalty rates, bought patent portfolios worldwide, and evaluated licensing revenue worldwide. He is no longer affiliated with Intellectual Ventures. At Stanford Micah has taught survey courses explaining economic and financial issues to non-experts. Course topics have included Economics of Licensing, Market Estimation, IP, Economics of Product Development, Valuation of Early-Stage Technologies, and Venture Capital Finance. According to student surveys, these courses have been consistently among the most popular graduate courses at Stanford. Since 2002, Micah has been retained for testimony in intellectual property disputes involving the misappropriation of trade secrets, patent infringement and breach of technology agreements. He has also been retained for expert testimony in disputes involving complex financial issues, focusing primarily on private companies and partnerships. His experience has included the measurements of damages related to corporate ownership, venture capital investments, bankruptcy, and joint ventures. He is experienced at producing economic models that measure damages from alleged wrongful conduct and testifying to economic issues related to the following technology areas: semiconductors (digital and analog), 3G/4G handsets, medical devices, healthcare software and services, automotive, biotech tools and reagents, consumer software, online advertising, financial services, enterprise application software (SaaS and packaged software), databases, and consumer electronics. As an industry practitioner, Micah invests in private technology companies as Managing Director of a venture capital fund, C2C Ventures. His testimony has referenced his private company investments, which include BioImagene (2003, acquired in 2010 by Roche for $100 million in cash), Stack Overflow (2010), Hadapt (2011, acquired in 2014 by Teradata), Judicata (2012), Cellular Research, Inc. (2013, acquired in 2015 by Becton, Dickinson for $120 million in cash), and C2C Patents (spun out of Stanford in 2012). and SkyFront (2016). Micah was recognized in 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 by Intellectual Asset Management Magazine, a widely distributed industry publication, as one of the world’s 250 “Leading IP Experts” (“IAM 250“) and in 2003 by MIT Technology Review magazine as one of the world’s “100 Top Innovators” (“TR100 List“). He is a Member of the American Economics Association and the Licensing Executives Society, and an Associate Member of the American Bar Association. He is a Certified Patent Valuation Analyst (CPVA). He graduated from Yale University (Phi Beta Kappa, Magna Cum Laude) and received a Ph.D. from the California Institute of Technology.

He can be reached at msiegel@c2cpatents.com and on twitter

supporting team

C2C Patents is an affiliate of Cornerstone Research, a leading economic consulting firm with offices in Boston, Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Silicon Valley, and Washington. Our projects are supported by staff consultants at Cornerstone. We choose our support teams on a case-by-case basis, and as carefully as our clients choose C2C Patents. Our support teams contribute their expertise in economics, finance, accounting, and marketing, as well as business acumen, familiarity with the litigation process, and commitment to produce outstanding results.

Our Partners

Representative Cases

InterDigital vs. ZTE
Int'l Trade Commission Docket No. 337-TA-868, Valuation of Standard Essential Patents, Damages Analysis, FRAND licensing, 3G/4G Handsets.
Lincoln Nat’l Life vs. Jackson Nat’l Life
U.S. District Court, Northern District of Indiana, Case No. 1-07-cv-00265, Patent Infringement, Damages Analysis, Financial Products.
Summit 6 vs. Apple
U.S. District Court, Northern District of Texas, Case No. 7-14-cv-00106, Patent Infringement, Damages Analysis, Online Image Processing Software.
Dolby vs. ArcSoft
U.S. District Court, Northern District of California, Case No. 1-12-cv-230794, Breach of Contract, Software Licensing Practices, Damages Analysis, Media Encoders.
Lutrull vs. Avery
Superior Court of California, Santa Barbara County, Case No. 1415592, Breach of Contract, Damages Analysis, Valuation of Equity in Venture-Capital Funded Company.
Adaptix vs. AT&T
U.S. District Court, Eastern District of Texas, Case No. 6-12-cv-00019, Patent Infringement, Damages Analysis, Communication Systems.
Nortel Networks Bankruptcy
Court Monitor for Canadian Debtors, Ontario Bankruptcy Court, Case No. 09-CL-7950, Damages Analysis, Patent Portfolio Valuation, Communication Systems.
CH2O vs. Meras
U.S. District Court, Central District of California, Case No. 2-13-cv-08418, Patent Infringement, Damages Analysis, Biotechnology.
HealthTrio vs. Aetna
U.S. District Court, District of Colorado, Case No. 1-12-cv-03229, Patent Infringement,, Damages Analysis, Electronic Medical Records.
Affinity vs. Google
Superior Court of California, Santa Clara County, Case No. 1-04-CV-020368, Theft of Trade Secrets, Damages Analysis, Social Networking Software.

Contact Us



C2C Patents, Stanford, CA

Last Modified: July 30, 2014 At Concept2Company Patents, Inc. (“C2C Patents”), we are committed to maintaining the confidentiality and security of any personal information about our users. Your privacy is always at the top of our priorities, and we are focused on protecting it from unauthorized access. This Privacy & Security Policy supplements our Terms of Service and spells out how we collect, use, and disclose of information from or about you through our website www.C2CPatents.com and the C2C Patents service. Users can access the C2C Patents service (the “Service”) via our website www.C2CPatents.com. By using our Service you are consenting to the collection, transfer, processing, storage, disclosure and other uses described in this Privacy & Security Policy. The use of information collected through our service shall be limited to the purpose of providing the service for which the C2C Patents client (“Client”) has engaged C2C Patents. If you have questions or complaints regarding our privacy policy or practices, please contact us at info@C2CPatents.com. C2C Patents complies with the U.S. – EU Safe Harbor Framework and the U.S. – Swiss Safe Harbor Framework as set forth by the U.S. Department of Commerce regarding the collection, use and retention of personal data from the European Union member countries and Switzerland. The Information We Collect And Store We may collect and store the following information when running the C2C Patents Service: Information You Provide. When you contact us via our website, we collect some personal information, such as your name and email address. Your Data and Other Information About You. With your permission (which you grant by using our Service), C2C Patents collects and stores information you provide or that we collect in order to administer our Services and/or as otherwise described in this Privacy & Security Policy or our Terms of Service. If you or another user uploads a file to C2C Patents that has been previously uploaded by you or another user, we may associate all or a portion of the previous file with the applicable accounts rather than storing duplicates. Log Data. When you use the Service, we automatically collect certain information from your Device, its software, and your activity using the Services. This may include, for example (but without limitation), the Device’s Internet Protocol (“IP”) address, browser type, the web page visited before or after you came to our website, information you search for on our website, locale preferences, identification numbers associated with your Devices, your mobile carrier, date and time stamps associated with transactions, system configuration information, metadata, and interactions with the Service. Cookies.  We also use “cookies” to collect information and provide and improve our Services. A cookie is a small file that we transfer to your Device. We may use “persistent cookies” to save your registration ID and login password for future logins to the Service. We may use “session ID cookies” to enable certain features of the Service, to better understand how you interact with the Service, to monitor aggregate usage and web traffic routing on the Service, and to enable third-party vendors, including Google and AdRoll, to serve ads based on someone’s past visits to our website. This also enables third-party vendors, including Google, to show our ads on sites across the internet. You can instruct your browser, by changing its options, to stop accepting cookies or to prompt you before accepting a cookie from the websites you visit. If you do not accept cookies, however, you may not be able to use all aspects of the Service. Our affiliates use cookies to make it easier for us to gather analytics about site usage and to help us provide interactive support for our users. The use of cookies by our affiliates is not covered by our privacy policy. We do not have access or control over these cookies. Widgets.  Our website includes social media features, such as the Facebook Like button and widgets, such as the “Share This” button for Twitter and LinkedIn. These features may collect your IP address and the page you are visiting on our site, and they may set a cookie to enable the feature to function properly. Social media features and widgets are either hosted by a third party or hosted directly on our site. Your interactions with these features are governed by the privacy policy of the company providing it. How We Use Personal Information Personal Information. In the course of using the Service, we may collect or otherwise obtain information that can be used to contact or identify you (“Personal Information”). Personal Information is or may be used: (i) to provide and improve our Service, (ii) to administer your use of the Service, (iii) to recommend follow-up reminders, assign tasks, or personalize the service, and (iv) to provide or offer software updates and product announcements. If you no longer wish to receive communications from us that are not required for the Service, please follow the “unsubscribe” instructions provided in any of those communications, or update your account settings information. Geo-Location Information. Some devices allow applications to access real-time location-based information (for example, GPS). Our mobile apps do not collect such information from your device as of the date this policy went into effect, but may do so in the future with your consent to improve our Services. We may use this information to optimize your experience. Also, some of the information we do currently collect from a device, for example IP address, can sometimes be used to approximate a device’s location. Analytics.  We also collect some information (ourselves or using third party services) that requires using logging and cookies, such as IP address, which can sometimes be correlated with Personal Information. We use this information for the above purposes and to monitor and analyze use of the Service, for the Service’s technical administration, to increase our Service’s functionality and user-friendliness, to verify users have the authorization needed for the Service to process their requests, and for advertising purposes. As of the date this policy went into effect, we use Google Analytics. Visitors can opt out of Google’s use of cookies for advertising purposes by visiting Google’s Ads Settings. To learn more about the privacy policy of Google Analytics, click here. To learn how to opt out of that service, click here. Information Sharing and Disclosure by Us No Sale of Personal Information. We do not sell Personal Information to third parties. Service Providers, Business Partners and Others. We may use certain trusted third-party companies and individuals to help us provide, analyze, and improve the Service (including but not limited to data storage, maintenance services, database management, web analytics, payment processing, and improvement of the Service’s features). These third parties may have access to your information for purposes of performing these tasks on our behalf and under obligations similar to those in this Privacy Policy. As of the date this policy went into effect, we use Salesforce to store some of the information your provide to us (for example, drafts of confidential expert witness reports). You can find more information on Salesforce’s data security from the Salesforce Security site. Third-Party Applications. As of the date this policy went into effect, C2C Patents has never and will not share your information with a third-party application. In the future, with your consent, we may share your information with a third-party application (for example patent database search applications). We are not responsible for what those parties do with your information, so you should make sure you trust the application and that it has a privacy policy that is acceptable to you. Compliance with Laws and Law Enforcement Requests; Protection of C2C Patents’s Rights. We may disclose to third parties data stored in your C2C Patents account and information about you that we collect when we have a good faith belief that disclosure is reasonably necessary to (a) comply with a law, regulation, or compulsory legal request, such as to comply with a subpoena; or (b) to protect C2C Patents’s rights. If we provide any data stored in your C2C Patents account to a law enforcement agency, we will remove C2C Patents’s encryption from the information before providing it to law enforcement. Business Transfers. If we are involved in a merger, acquisition, or sale of all or a portion of our assets, your information may be transferred as part of that transaction, but we will notify you (for example, via email, sign in notification, and/or a prominent notice on our website) if that happens or if your information otherwise becomes subject to a different privacy policy in lieu of this one. We will also notify you of choices you may have regarding the information. Changing or Deleting Your Information For questions about your Personal Information on our Service, please contact info@C2CPatents.com. We will respond to your inquiry within 30 days. Data Retention Our intention is to retain your information for as long as needed to provide you with the Services. If you wish to cancel your account or request that we no longer use your information to provide you Services, you may contact us at info@C2CPatents.com. We may retain and use your information as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, and enforce our agreements and rights, or if it is not technically reasonably feasible to remove it. Consistent with these requirements, we will try to delete your information quickly upon request. Please note, however, that there might be latency in deleting information from our servers and backed-up versions might exist after deletion. In addition, we do not delete information from our servers files if you have that information in common with other users. Choice/Opt-Out You may choose to stop receiving our newsletter or marketing emails by following the unsubscribe instructions included in these emails, when available, or you can contact us at info@C2CPatents.com. Blogs Our website may offer publicly accessible blogs or community forums in the future. You should be aware that any information you provide in these areas may be read, collected, and used by others who access them. To request removal of your personal information from our blog or community forum, contact us at info@C2CPatents.com. In some cases, we may not be able to remove your personal information. If this is the case, we will let you know and indicate why. Security C2C Patents stresses its privacy and security standards. Although no one can guarantee absolute security, we regularly re-evaluate our privacy and security policies in order to adapt to new challenges. We follow generally accepted standards to protect the information submitted to us, both during transmission and once we receive it. Children Our Services are not directed to persons under 13. We do not knowingly collect personally identifiable information from children under 13. If a parent or guardian becomes aware that his or her child has provided us with Personal Information without the parent’s consent, he or she should contact us at info@C2CPatents.com. If we become aware that a child under 13 has provided us with Personal Information, we will take steps to delete such information from our files. Contacting Us If you have any questions about this Privacy Policy, please contact us at info@C2CPatents.com, or at Box 20524, Stanford CA 94309. Changes to our Privacy & Security Policy If we make a change to this privacy policy, we will provide you with notice (for example, by email, a sign-in notification, or some other means) prior to the change becoming effective. By continuing to use the Service after those changes become effective, you are agreeing to be bound by the revised Privacy and Security Policy; if you do not agree to the change, simply don’t use the Service after the change is effective, in which case the change will not apply to you. Service Provider, Sub-Processors/Onward Transfer C2C Patents may transfer personal information to companies that help us provide our service. Transfers to subsequent third parties are covered by the provisions in this Policy regarding notice and choice, as well as the service agreements with our Clients. Data Retention C2C Patents will retain personal data we process on behalf of our Clients for as long as needed to provide services to our Client. C2C Patents will retain and use this personal information as necessary to comply with our legal obligations, resolve disputes, and enforce our agreement.

Last Modified: July 30, 2014 Thank you for using C2C Patents! These terms of service (the “Terms”) govern your access to and use of C2C Patents (“we” or “our”) websites and services (the “Services”). Please read them carefully before using the Services. By using the Services you are agreeing to these Terms. If you are using the Services on behalf of an organization, you are agreeing to these Terms for that organization and representing that you have the authority to bind that organization to these terms. In that case, “you” and “your” will refer to that organization. You may use the Services only in accordance with these Terms. You may use the Services only if you have the legal power and capacity to form a contract with C2C Patents. The Services will continue to evolve as we refine features and functionality. We may terminate, suspend, or modify the Services, in general or with respect to you, from time to time without cause or prior notice. We may also delete any content or data from the Services at our discretion. Sharing Your Data and Your Privacy Subject to the limited exceptions specified in our Privacy Policy, until you choose otherwise, all of Your Data remains visible only to you. What we do with Your Data, and how we collect and use other information relating to you generally is explained in our Privacy and Security Policy. Your Responsibilities Information and content accessible through the Services may be protected by intellectual property rights of others. Please do not copy, upload, download, or share any information or content unless you have the right to do so. You, not C2C Patents, will be fully responsible and liable for what you copy, share, upload, download or otherwise send to us while using the Services. You, and not C2C Patents, are responsible for maintaining and protecting all of Your Data. C2C Patents will not be liable for any loss or corruption of Your Data, or for any costs or expenses associated with backing up or restoring any of Your Data. If any information related to your account changes, you must notify us promptly and keep your information current. The Services are not intended for use by you if you are under 18 years of age. By agreeing to these Terms, you are representing to us that you are over 18. Software and Updates Some parts of our Service require you to download a client software package (“Software”). Subject to these Terms, C2C Patents hereby grants you a limited, nonexclusive, nontransferable, non sublicensable, revocable license to use the Software, solely to access the Services. This license will be automatically revoked if you violate these Terms. We reserve all rights not explicitly granted in these Terms. You must not attempt to reverse engineer the Software or encourage or assist anyone else to do so. The Services may automatically update the Software on your device when a new version becomes available. Feedback While we appreciate it when users send us feedback, please be aware that we (or others we authorize) may use in any manner any feedback, comments, or suggestions you post in our forums or otherwise provide without any obligation to you. Other Content The Services may contain links to websites or resources of others. We do not endorse and are not responsible or liable for their accuracy, availability, content, products, services or anything else. You are solely responsible for your use of any such websites or resources. Also, if we provide you with any software under an open source license, there may be provisions in those licenses that conflict with these Terms, in which case the open source provisions will apply with respect to the code to which those provisions apply. Termination C2C Patents is available “as-is”; though we want to provide a great service, there are certain legal commitments we can’t make. For example, the services are provided “as is”, at your own risk, without express or implied warranty of any kind, including, without limitation, warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. C2C Patents will not be responsible for harm that results from your use of the services. Some states do not allow the types of disclaimers in this paragraph, so they may not apply to you. Limitations of Liability To the fullest extent permitted by law, in no event will C2C Patents, its affiliates, officers, employees, agents, suppliers or licensors be liable for any indirect, special, incidental, punitive, exemplary or consequential (including loss of use, data, business, or profits) damages, regardless of legal theory, whether or not C2C Patents has been warned of the possibility of such damages, and even if a remedy fails of its essential purpose. Some states do not allow the types of limitations in this paragraph, so they may not apply to you. Modifications We may revise these Terms from time to time and the most current version will always be posted on our website. We will notify you of any change (for example via email to the email address associated with your account or by a notification when you use the Services or by some other method). By continuing to access or use the Services after revisions become effective, you are agreeing to be bound by the revised Terms. If you do not agree to the new terms, simply don’t use the Service after the change is effective, in which case the change will not apply to you. Miscellaneous Legal Terms These terms and the use of the services will be governed by California law except for its conflicts of laws principles. All claims arising out of or relating to these terms or the services or software must be litigated exclusively in the federal or state courts of California, and both parties consent to venue and personal jurisdiction there. These Terms constitute the entire and exclusive agreement between you and C2C Patents with respect to the Services, and supersede and replace any other agreements, terms and conditions applicable to the Services. These Terms create no third party beneficiary rights. C2C Patents’s failure to enforce a provision is not a waiver of its right to do so later. If a provision is found unenforceable the remaining provisions of the Agreement will remain in full effect and an enforceable term will be substituted to reflect our intent as closely as possible. C2C Patents may assign its rights and obligations to any of its affiliates or subsidiaries, or to any successor in interest of any business or assets associated with the Services.